References, Citations, Copyright

Students must cite work in two places: in-text and at the end of papers, regardless of the citation style used. Be sure to verify with instructors the required citation style.

Style guides and manuals

We recommend referring to these style guides and manuals:

Writing Resources

Referencing Software

Northwestern and NU-Q provide students with access to software programs designed to download, store and manipulate bibliographic information and can save you countless hours gathering data to write your papers.


This product is available to NU-Q students and faculty. Go to RefWorks and register for an account. You must be on the NU-Q campus or connected to NU VPN off campus. You may need NU-Q IT administrator permission to add the ‘written cite’ feature to MS word.

View RefWorks LibGuide


EndNote comes with the NU Toolkit, including customized connections that work with Northwestern's library databases. Details about the NU Toolkit can be found on the University Library website.

View EndNote LibGuide


Zotero is a free and open-source bibliographic manager that is usable with the Firefox web browser. Go to Zotero to download and install the product.

View Zotero LibGuide

Copyright and Scholarly Communication

Northwestern University Library seeks to foster broad understanding of copyright laws and their implications for research, teaching and learning. As residents of Qatar we also follow Qatar’s copyright laws.

Northwestern University Policies